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The demand for miniaturized antennas has risen considerably to keep pace with the stringent needs of modern communication systems. It is however known that realization of compact and particularly electrically small antennas (ESA) leads to degradation of both antenna bandwidth and efficiency. This is due to the fact that the antenna is used to transform a bounded wave into a radiated wave. In addition to a decrease in bandwidth and efficiency, antennas become more difficult to match with a reduction in their electrical size, due to an increase in antenna Q. Thus reducing the size of an antenna implies that the antenna designer must take in account each of the potentials drawbacks and keep a reasonably good antenna performance in term of radiation patterns, gain, bandwidth, etc. depending on the specific application.

The aim of this project is to investigate the state of art in miniaturizing an antenna.